The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) International Top Young Fellowship (ITYF) was established as a prestigious new fellowship program in 2009. The ITYF is designed to attract outstanding, highly motivated, early-career researchers in any of the space science fields covered by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) to work in Japan for 3 (extendable to 5) years. An excellent remuneration package is offered, including research budget (including travel expense) so that the fellow can extend their international profile, as well as developing collaborations within Japan.
The most recent call for JAXA International Top Young Fellowship applications, for FY2013, has been issued. The application deadline is 31 August 2013. Please see the below link for further details.