Sessional Instructor Position in Physics & Astronomy, Brandon University (Deadline: April 11, 2014)

Applications are invited for a Sessional Instructor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Brandon University. The preferred starting date is September 1, 2014. Applications are solicited from all fields of Physics and Astronomy. A minimum of the M.Sc. degree is required for this position, with preference given to Ph.D. holders or candidates.

Brandon University is a predominantly undergraduate institution, and while department members are all active researchers, the focus is on successful and innovative teaching of our students. The Department offers 3 year, 4-year, and 4-year Honours undergraduate degree programs in Physics. The successful candidate will be a high quality instructor charged with teaching several of our regular 1st, 2nd and 3rd year physics courses required by all Physics Majors and Minors throughout the Sept.-Dec. 2014 and January-April 2015 academic terms. Therefore a successful track record of teaching Physics to a wide variety of levels will be the primary consideration. The candidate may also teach 1-2 weekly sections of lab experiments associated with the Department’s introductory “Foundations of Physics” courses. The full teaching assignment for the position is for 12 credit-hours of instruction, for which the total remuneration will be $22,820.

For more information on this position and Brandon University please see or contact the Department Chair Dr. Austin Gulliver (

Applications should include vitae, and clear documentation of teaching experience (including statement of Teaching Philosophy), as well as the names and e-mail addresses of three references.

Please address applications to

Dr. Andrew Egan
Dean of Science
Brandon University
Brandon, MB R7A 6A9
Fax (204-728-7346)
E-mail (

Deadline for Applications: Friday April 11, 2014
All qualified candidates are encouraged to apply; however, Canadians and permanent residents will be given priority. Short-listed candidates will be expected to provide copies of credentials at the time of interview.

SKA Postdoctoral Fellowships in Cosmic Magnetism, University of Cape Town (Deadline February 15, 2014)

SKA Postdoctoral Fellowships in Cosmic Magnetism
University of Cape Town and University of the Western Cape

The Department of Astronomy of the University of Cape Town and the University of the Western Cape are hosting postdoctoral positions in the area of Cosmic Magnetism, associated with the SKA Research Chair in Observational Radio Astronomy (chair holder: Prof Russ Taylor).

South Africa is constructing MeerKAT, a 64-dish radio interferometer serving as an SKA precursor ( that will be completed in 2016. The construction of mid-frequency dish array for SKA phase 1, that will add 190 more dishes, should start around 2018.

The postdoctoral fellows will engage in observational programs in radio polarimetry, simulations, and scientific investigations that pathfind the SKA key science goal of the exploration of the origins and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields. In advance of MeerKAT commissioning and operation, opportunities exist for participation in the GALFACTS project – an all-sky spectro-polarimetric survey being undertaken with the Arecibo ALPHA system, the POSSUM polarization survey with the Australia SKA Pathfinder, and deep broad-band polarization imaging surveys with the JVLA and GMRT.

We are looking for an enthusiastic candidate interested in joining the steadily growing UCT and UWC astronomy departments. Applicants should have a Ph.D in astronomy, experience in observational radio astronomy either single dish or aperture synthesis, or a theoretical background in studies of cosmic magnetic fields.

Candidates will be asked to help out with light departmental duties (e.g. seminars), with postgraduate students’ supervision and with some outreach activities. The appointment is for two years, with possibilities of extension for an extra year, subject to sufficient progress. The salary is tax-free and at the top of the postdoc scale. Equipment and travel funding are available. Interested candidates should send a CV, bibliography, brief summary of research, outline of future plans, and arrange for three letters of recommendation to be sent by February 15, 2014. Applications will start to be considered from that date until the position is filled. Ideally, the position would start on July 1st 2014. Inquiries, applications and letters of recommendation should be sent by email to

Cape Town itself is a stunningly scenic and modern city at the junction of the
Atlantic and Indian Oceans, with vibrant urban culture, nearby beaches, mountains, exotic wildlife, and wine country.

Research Associate Position – NRC Herzberg (Deadline February 17, 2014)

The NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program (NRC Herzberg) requires a Postdoctoral Research Associate (RA) at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, BC. The successful candidate will be an outstanding recent doctoral graduate in astrophysics or a closely related discipline who is highly motivated to contribute to projects led by NRC Herzberg staff members and exploiting facilities administered by NRC for Canadian astronomers.

The successful candidate will:

• Work independently and perform original research in collaboration with NRC Herzberg staff members associated with the projects that are most relevant to the applicant’s area of expertise; in particular, he/she will help lead the scientific exploitation of projects that utilize the astronomical facilities and infrastructure whose Canadian access is administered by NRC-Herzberg, including:

1.      High contrast imaging of exoplanets and debris disks (Principal contact: Christian Marois)

2.      Characterization and multi-wavelength observations of Kuiper Belt Objects (Principal contact: JJ Kavelaars)

3.      Study of planet or star formation processes (Principal contact: Brenda Matthews)

4.      Resolved stellar population analysis of the Galaxy and its nearest neighbours (Principal contact: Alan McConnachie)

5.      Scientific exploitation of data taken as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS): (Principal contact: Laura Ferrarese)

• Keep an active engagement with the community to advance NRC Herzberg’s mandate. In particular, NRC Herzberg is a leading developer of instrumentation for ground and space-based telescopes (e.g., ALMA, CFHT, Gemini, JCMT, JWST, SKA, TMT), and is at the forefront of scientific data preservation, distribution and analysis techniques. The CADC, which is home to the Canadian Virtual Observatory, the CANFAR cloud computing network, and data archives including, e.g., CFHT, CGPS, Gemini, HST and JCMT, is also located at NRC Herzberg.

• Share with other RAs the organization of the weekly seminar series which runs Sept.-April

Applicants must have acquired their PhD within the last five years or expect to receive the degree within the next 6 months.

Applications should be made by 17 February 2014 via the process described at the URL provided.

Further project information available at :

Closing date: 17 February

Please note that this information is available in French on our website at :

Le programme Astronomie et astrophysique Herzberg du CNRC (CNRC Herzberg) est à la recherche d’un(e) attaché(e) de recherche postdoctorale pour l’Observatoire fédéral d’astrophysique situé à Victoria, en Colombie-Britannique. Le ou la titulaire aura récemment réussi brillamment un doctorat en astrophysique ou dans une discipline connexe et désire ardemment contribuer aux projets menés par les membres du personnel du programme et utiliser les installations administrées par le CNRC pour les astronomes canadiens.

Le ou la candidat(e) retenu(e) devra :

• Travailler de façon autonome et mener de nouvelles recherches en collaboration avec les membres du personnel de CNRC Herzberg associés aux projets en lien avec son domaine d’expertise; plus particulièrement, il ou elle aidera à diriger l’exploitation scientifique de projets qui utilisent les installations et l’infrastructure d’astronomie administrées par le CNRC Herzberg, incluant :

1. Imagerie de contraste élevé d’exoplanètes et de disques de débris (contact principal :  Christian Marois)

2. Caractérisation et observations à de multiples longueurs d’onde des objets de la ceinture de Kuiper (contact principal : JJ Kavelaars)

3. Étude des processus de formation des étoiles ou des planètes (contact principal :  Brenda Matthews)

4. Analyse de la population stellaire résolue du système satellite de la Voie lactée, du Groupe local et d’autres galaxies à proximité (contact principal :  Alan McConnachie)

5. Exploitation scientifique des données recueillies dans le cadre de l’étude de nouvelle génération de l’amas de la Vierge ou NGVS (contact principal :  Laura Ferrarese)

• S’engager activement auprès de la collectivité pour faire progresser le mandat de CNRC Herzberg. Plus précisément, CNRC Herzberg est un chef de file en matière de développement d’instrumentation pour les télescopes situés dans l’espace ou sur terre (p. ex. ALMA, TCFH, Gemini, le télescope spatial James Webb, le Square Kilometer Array [SKA], le télescope de trente mètres [TMT]) ainsi qu’en matière de techniques de préservation, de distribution et d’analyse des données scientifiques. Le Centre canadien de données astronomique (CCDA) qui abrite l’Observatoire virtuel canadien, le réseau infonuagique CANFAR et les archives de données comprenant, entre autres, celles du TCFH, du ECPG, de Gemini, du TSH et du télescope JCM, est également situé à CNRC Herzberg;

• Partager avec les autres attaché(e)s de recherche à l’organisation des séminaires hebdomadaires qui ont lieu de septembre à avril.

Les candidat(e)s doivent avoir obtenu leur doctorat en astronomie ou dans une discipline connexe dans les 5 dernières années ou s’attendre à l’obtenir dans les 6 prochains mois.

Les demandes devraient être faites d’ici au 17 février 2014 via le processus décrit à l’adresse Internet fournie.

Plus d’information au sujet du poste est disponible à :

Date limite de réception des demandes :  17 février 2014

Veuillez être avisé que cette information est disponible en anglais sur notre site Internet à l’adresse suivante :

Dean, Faculty of Science – University of Manitoba (Deadline: open until position is filled)

The University of Manitoba invites nominations and applications for the position of Dean, Faculty of Science.

Celebrated as Western Canada’s first university, the University of Manitoba is the largest university in Manitoba and the only medical-doctoral institution in the province. As a member of Canada’s U15 group of research universities, its community of approximately 29,000 students, 3,800 academic faculty and staff, and 4,600 non-academic staff contributes $1.8 billion annually to Manitoba’s economy. For more information, visit

The Faculty of Science is home to more than 200 faculty and staff, 4082 undergraduate students, and 364 graduate students. This collegial community is dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the wide range of disciplines found in this comprehensive, research-intensive Faculty. Dedicated to exemplary teaching and outstanding research, the faculty are highly attuned to the complex issues facing the world of science today, and, in their research activity, push the boundaries of knowledge as they grow and build the Faculty’s reputation for world-class research and science education. For details on the Faculty, and its accolades to date, please visit

With ambitious plans for the future, the Faculty of Science is seeking, as its next Dean, an individual who will provide visionary leadership, encourage collegiality, and develop strategic relationships which will enable the Faculty to prosper in these changing and challenging times. Exemplifying strong scientific values and a passion for innovation and discovery, the new Dean will champion continuing success. Possessing the ability to promote and support academic excellence and research productivity, candidates must have an outstanding record of scholarly achievement, a Ph.D. in a relevant discipline, solid administrative experience, and an ability to strategically manage resources toward the fulfillment of a vision for the Faculty as one of the leaders in Canada.  The Dean reports to the Vice-President (Academic) and Provost, and is a member of the university’s senior leadership team.

The University of Manitoba is committed to creating a diverse and inclusive workplace.  Applications are encouraged from qualified applicants including members of visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, people with disabilities, people of all sexual orientations and genders, and others who may contribute to the further diversification of the university.  All qualified candidates are encouraged to apply; however, Canadian citizens and permanent residents will be given priority.

Consideration of candidates begins in January 2014. Inquiries or applications, in confidence, should be directed to Gerri Woodford or Jason Murray at

Tenure Track Faculty Position (Astronomy) at Mount Allison University (Deadline: January 31, 2014)

The Physics Department at Mount Allison University invites applications for a tenure-track position, with primary responsibilities for teaching and research in the area of astronomy. Applicants must possess a Ph.D. in astronomy, astrophysics, or a closely related area, and have a strong commitment to undergraduate teaching and research. The successful candidate will teach courses in our undergraduate program in the areas of astronomy, astrophysics, and general physics. The successful candidate will have a rigorous research program capable of both attracting external funding and involving undergraduate students. Mount Allison University is a highly rated, primarily undergraduate institution with an active and diverse Physics Department. Mount Allison’s on-campus observatory offers opportunities for teaching, outreach, and some niche research. The ability to work in an observatory setting would be an asset. The appointment will be made at the rank of Assistant Professor and wi!
ll commence on July 1, 2014, subject to budgetary approval.

A complete application package will be submitted to Academic Jobs Online, The application will include a letter of application, curriculum vitae, statement of current and planned research, and statement of teaching interests and philosophy. Evidence of effective teaching is required. The application will include three letters of reference (uploaded directly by the referees themselves). The names and contact information for these three referees will be provided in the letter of application. Applications are due by January 31, 2014.

For more information, please contact:
Dr. David Fleming
Physics Department Head Mount Allison University
62 York St. Sackville, New Brunswick E4L 1E2 Email:

Mount Allison University welcomes diversity in the workplace and encourages applications from all qualified women and men, including aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities, and members of visible minorities. All qualified candidates are encouraged to apply; however, Canadians and permanent residents of Canada will be given priority. Canadian and permanent residents should indicate their citizenship status in their letter of application.

Gemini Science Fellows (Deadline: 1 December 2013)

Gemini has an opening for one Science Fellow at each of Gemini North, Hilo, Hawaii, and Gemini South, La Serena, Chile. These Science Fellow positions are for fixed three-year terms, with half of the Fellow’s time spent on personal research, and half on Observatory support duties. The Observatory expects to fill one position at each site annually, advertising in the 4th quarter for positions beginning in the 2nd or 3rd quarter of the following year.

The successful Science Fellow will propose a 3-year research program in which Gemini observations figure prominently. Individual scientific research is supported by a research budget, and a fraction of the time available on both Gemini telescopes is used for successful peer-reviewed staff proposals. Information on current and future instruments at each telescope can be found on the Gemini web pages. Fellows are members of the Gemini Research Faculty, actively and independently contributing to the research environment at the Observatory; collaboration with other Gemini staff is also encouraged.
Science Fellows at Gemini acquire significant training and experience in large ground-based telescope operations—becoming proficient both in state-of-the-art astronomical instrumentation and research, and in the techniques of modern, queue-based observing methods. Fellows train as queue-scheduled observers and support external investigators in the preparation of their observations. Additional Observatory duties include support of Gemini instrumentation, employing queue planning tools to construct nightly observing plans, and/or working on Observatory development projects, depending on the Fellow’s interests.
Gemini offers an attractive and competitive salary and benefit package. The majority of the successful applicants’ time is spent at the base facilities in Hilo, Hawaii, or La Serena, Chile. Hilo is a town with a very diverse population of about 43,000 people, a tropical climate, and a substantial international astronomical community supporting the observatories on Mauna Kea. La Serena is a mid-sized city on the ocean, with a population of about 400,000 in the metropolitan area, also supporting a number of professional astronomical facilities. It is a popular tourist destination in the (Chilean) summer.
Requirements: Ph.D. in astronomy, physics or related discipline. Observational, data analysis and/or instrumentation experience in one or more of the following areas is a plus: near-IR spectroscopy and imaging; optical and multi-object and IFU spectroscopy; adaptive optics and high spatial resolution imaging. Must be safety conscious; possess or be able to obtain a valid passport; willing and able to travel internationally; possess a valid driver’s license with a good driving record; and be able to drive 4WD vehicles. Applicants must be able to work nights at the altitude of the Cerro Pachon (2900 m) or Mauna Kea (4200 m) summit.
Send a cover letter relating your experience and education to the requirements of the position, your curriculum vitae, a research statement that provides a summary of your most important contributions to research in astronomy and describes your future plans, and a statement of observatory support interests. The names and email addresses of three professional references must also be provided. All documents are required in order to be considered for the position. Application materials should be submitted online through the Gemini web site: Please include the AAS Job Register number in your cover letter. Applications received by December 1, 2013 will receive full consideration. The starting date is negotiable but is expected to be between April and August 2014. For further information about the positions please contact Dr. Sandy Leggett, Gemini-North Head of Science Operations (, Dr. Bernadette Rodgers, Gemini-South Head of Science Operations ( or Dr. Nancy Levenson, Deputy Director and Head of Science (


Head of Science Operations at Gemini-South (Deadline: open until position is filled)

Gemini Observatory announces an opening for the position of Head of Science Operations at Gemini South, in La Serena, Chile. This is a full-time, regular position, available immediately. The start date is negotiable, however a start date before February 2014 is highly desirable.
The Head of Science operations is responsible for delivery of science operations for users of Gemini South, and manages the Science Operations group at the site. The Science Operations group performs the core duties which comprise science operations at Gemini. These include the following: supporting the time allocation process carried out by the international partners and the ITAC; maintaining the telescope schedule, supporting the National Gemini Offices in their work with Principal Investigators on observation preparation; carrying out queue observing and supporting classical observing, providing scientific support for instrumentation, maintaining user information on the Gemini web pages, and conducting astronomical research. Within the science operations group there are the research staff: scientists, astronomers and Science Fellows with support duties; the non-research Science Operations Specialists group (whose duties are detailed elsewhere); and the Data Processing Development group. The Head of Science Operations, of which there is one at each site, is a research astronomer, responsible for oversight and direction of all of these activities, either directly or via intermediate managers; identifies and implements organizational improvements; and performs staff management and scheduling for most members of the group. The Head of Science Operations is also involved in strategic planning at the Observatory level, in reporting to various governance bodies. They carry out a program of personal research in an agreed fraction of their total time.
Requirements: Ph.D. in astronomy, physics or related discipline. Significant optical and/or infrared observational, data analysis and/or instrumentation experience is highly desirable, as well as a desire to facilitate scientific research for others. Candidates must have strong understanding of observatory operations in all aspects: instrumentation, data collection and analysis, PI needs and support. Must be familiar with observatory systems and instruments, including computer systems, software tools, communication systems. Must possess leadership, organizational and communication skills and be able to manage a multidisciplinary group. Must be fluent in English. The post requires a significantly above-average level of personal initiative. Requires outstanding judgment and ability to communicate firmly when issues of safety of personnel or the telescope are apparent. Must possess the ability to work productively in a multinational team. Previous experience of staff management would be an advantage.

Must be safety conscious; possess or be able to obtain a valid passport; willing and able to travel internationally; possess a valid driver’s license with a good driving record; and be able to drive 4WD vehicles. Applicants must be able to work nights at the altitude of the Cerro Pachon summit, 2700 m.
Send a cover letter relating your experience and education to the requirements of the position, your resume, and a research statement. The names and email addresses of three professional references must also be provided. All documents are required in order to be considered for the position.


Postdoctoral Research Position in Observational Astrophysics, Universite de Montreal (Deadline January 31, 2014)

Applications are invited for a postdoctoral position within the Extragalactic Research Group at the Université de Montréal, to work with Professor Julie Hlavacek-Larrondo.

The successful candidate will work on topics broadly related to black hole feedback in massive galaxies, groups and clusters, as well as the physics of compact objects. He or she will have access to data taken with the new JVLA, the GMRT, Chandra and XMM-Newton.

Applicants must have a PhD in astronomy or a related field. Experience with radio observations is strongly preferred.

The successful candidate will receive mentoring and networking opportunities that include advising undergraduates, traveling to conferences and to visit collaborators at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the University of New Mexico. The Université de Montréal is also part of the Centre for Research in Astrophysics of Québec (CRAQ), a partnership between the Université de Montréal, the Université Laval and McGill University. The successful candidate will have access to these resources.

Applicants should e-mail a single PDF to by January 31, 2014 containing:
1. A cover letter explaining his or her interest and qualifications for the position (1 page).
2. A brief statement of past research and future aims (2 pages or less).
3. A CV, including a publications list.
Please also arrange for 2 letters of reference to be e-mailed to by January 31, 2014.

The starting date is Fall 2014, with an earlier start possible. The appointment is for two years, with a third year contingent on performance and funding.

Dunlap Postdoctoral Fellowships in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Deadline January 6, 2014)

Name: Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
Email address:
Affiliation: University of Toronto

Dunlap Postdoctoral Fellowships in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
University of Toronto

Email Submission Address:
Attention To: Prof. Peter G. Martin, Interim Director
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
University of Toronto
50 St. George Street
Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 Canada

Email Address for Inquiries:

Closing Date for Receipt of Applications: January 6, 2014

Related URLs
University of Toronto:
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics:
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics:
Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics:

The University of Toronto invites applications for Dunlap Postdoctoral Fellowships within the Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics. This growing unit has a focus on initiating and embracing innovative instrumentation and observational campaigns across the electromagnetic spectrum. Dunlap Fellows are expected to drive original research independently or in collaboration with others at the University. They have access to design and fabrication facilities and can propose for additional support of their experimental plans. Dunlap Fellows are encouraged to participate in the Institute’s outreach and education initiatives. Training and mentoring in this area are available. The range of activities and opportunities in research and in outreach and education can be seen in the annual reports on the institute’s web site. Exceptional candidates in instrumental, observational, or experimentally related theoretical areas are encouraged to apply.

The appointment is initially for two years, with an expectation of renewal for a third on satisfactory performance. The fellowship includes a competitive annual stipend and benefits with funds for research, travel expenses, relocation, and the opportunity to request additional research funds from the Dunlap Institute. The expected starting date is September 1, 2014. Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, bibliography, and statement of research interests, and arrange to have three letters of recommendation sent to the above address by January 6, 2014. Further information about the University of Toronto can be obtained through the above URLs.

Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Astronomy at Saint Mary’s University (Deadline October 31, 2013)

The Saint Mary’s University Department of Astronomy and Physics invites
applications from researchers in any area of astronomy and astrophysics
to be the University’s nominee for our Tier I Canada Research Chair
(CRC) in Astronomy. The successful candidate will be nominated by the
University to the CRC Secretariat and, if approved, will be appointed as
a regular faculty member to a tenure-track position at the Associate or
Full Professor level. The CRC Program was established by the Government
of Canada to enable Canadian Universities to achieve the highest levels
of research excellence in the global, knowledge-based economy. Tier I
CRCs are awarded to individuals who are outstanding researchers in their
fields, acknowledged as world leaders (see www.chairs.gc.cafor details).
The University has identified astronomy, computational sciences, and
subatomic physics as one of its five major research themes. More
details may be found at Saint Mary’s
University recognizes the long and continuing record of excellence from
the Department in this area of research and accordingly has allocated
astronomy researchers two CRCs (this position and a Tier II Chair,
already occupied).

The Department is the regional centre for astronomy in Atlantic Canada,
and consists of ten faculty members, all with active research efforts in
observational astronomy, theoretical and computational astrophysics, and
experimental subatomic physics. The Department offers both M.Sc. and
Ph.D. degrees in astronomy, as well as undergraduate physics and
astrophysics programs. The University also hosts the Institute for
Computational Astrophysics (ICA). The ICA is an institute promoting
computational astrophysics in the broadest possible terms; tackling
complex astrophysical phenomena through numerical simulation, and
advancing discoveries utilizing “big data” from large multinational
observational facilities. The Tier I CRC candidate may be considered
for directorship of the ICA. Observers in the Department are active in
the development of Astro-H & JWST, and actively utilize numerous
international observatories. ICA members are active in the local HPC
consortium, ACEnet, as well as Compute Canada, while the subatomic
physicists are frequent users of TRIUMF, Jefferson Lab, and other world
facilities. For a more complete account of departmental activities, see

Saint Mary’s is located in the historic port city of Halifax, Nova
Scotia, a vibrant, urban community of over 350,000 people. Halifax is a
major educational and economic centre for Atlantic Canada and is home to
five universities. It is conveniently located close to recreational
areas and to other major urban centres in Canada and the Northeastern
United States. A public university with over 7,000 students, Saint
Mary’s University offers a variety of undergraduate and graduate degree
programs. The university is committed to serving the local, regional,
national, and international communities, and integrating such activity
as part of the learning environment for undergraduate and graduate
students. The University has gone through significant renewal in the
past decade, with over 250 full-time faculty involved in innovative
teaching, research and service. Interdisciplinary studies are a
prominent feature and strength of the University. For information about
the University and the Faculty of Science, please see our website

Although candidates of all nationalities are encouraged to apply,
priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents (all
applicants should clearly indicate their status as a Canadian citizen or
permanent resident). Saint Mary’s University is committed to the
principles of employment equity.

The search committee will begin considering applications on October
31st, 2013. Interviews of short-listed candidates will commence in
November. Please submit your C.V. along with a statement of research
interests, a research proposal (maximum of five pages) for the purpose
of the CRC nomination, a teaching dossier, and the names and addresses
of four referees to:

Chair, Search Committee – Tier I CRC
Department of Astronomy and Physics
Saint Mary’s University
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3
Fax: (902) 496-8218